The Triangle or Olympic coarse offers competitors the full array of sailing angles to the wind with reaches, beats and downwind legs in various combinations. The marks can be set using bearings from Mark 3 as the reference point. Often Marks 1 and 2 are set up in a chain sequence. Mark 1 is positioned using a bearings back to Mark 3. Mark 2 is positioned using bearings from Mark 2 and Mark 1, and from Mark 3 to Mark 3. An 'offset', 'protective' or 'separation' mark is often set to Port of Mark 1 to avoid congestion and interference between yachts that have rounded Mark 2, and yachts that are still beating upwind towards the mark. It is also useful to keep yachts rounding Mark 1 and reaching towards Mark 2 clear of yachts sailing upwind on the port layline.There are various positions for the start and finish lines. The Web Apps listed below provide bearings and back bearings for an entered wind direction. There is Universal Tool for which the reach angles need to be entered. There are also tools that show the lat/longs for all marks in relation to an entered location or using geolocation for your current location. There are pre-filled options for 60-60-60 and 45-90-45 Triangle courses. Apps for both Port and starboard rounding triangles are provided. The two reach lengths to and from Mark 2, will depend on the reach angles. The leg lengths for a 60-60-60 degree triangle are all the same. The reach lengths for a 45-90-45 degree are about 2/3 of the beat length (71%). It is relatively easy to change the course when the wind changes direction. Simply re-locate Marks 2 and 3 using revised bearing provided by the Web Apps for the new wind direction.
The Lat Long versions include a geolocation tool - Refloc. This can be used to set the reference at the
bottom mark (Mark 4) when you are next to it. It works on most phones, allow 6 seconds to hone in.
Triangle LatLongDD format for Lat/Longs
Triangle LatLongDMM DMM format for Lat/Longs
Triangle LatLong Starboard DD format for Lat/Longs
Triangle LatLong StarboardDMM DMM format for Lat/Longs
Triangle 45-90-45 starboard
Triangle 60-60-60 Starboard
Triangle Universal starboard
Note: Works with most phones, but Smartphone with GPS is best for accurate positions. Allow 6 seconds to hone in. Enter the Lat Long for the
Reference Location Mark 3 or Mark 4 (for Trapezoid) or use the Geolocation Tool set
it for your location when you are at the mark. Once the options have been entered a map will be displayed.
Then, to set a mark, proceed in its direction using the bearings shown below the map.
Click the ShowMyLoc button to show your current position as a 'dot' on the map.
Click it again to show your new position on the map. Drop the mark when you get there.
A virtual GPS unit on your mobile. The options are:
Triangle DD Map DD format for Lat/Longs, MAP
Triangle DMM Map DMM format for Lat/Longs, MAP
Triangle Starboard DD Map Starboard DD format for Lat/Longs, MAP
Triangle Starboard DMM Map Starboard DMM format for Lat/Longs, MAP
To set courses for target elapsed times you need an indication of yacht class speeds under various wind conditions.
Speed charts are available for various Olympic classes for upwind, reach and downwind legs - See SPEED AND DISTANCE CHARTS FOR THE OLYMPIC CLASSES.
The speed charts for Laser and 470 classes have been used to develop indicative 60-60-60 triangle leg lengths for various triangle and Sausage (Windward and Return) courses for various expected elapsed times. See Laser and 470 Expected Speeds. These speeds have been used to develop target leg lengths for courses with various elapsed time length under winds ranging from 5 to 15+ knots. See Indicative Leg Length for various elapsed time courses for various wind strength ranges